Current Issue - November 2022 - Vol 25 Issue 8


  1. 2022;25;E1183-E1189A Comparison of Anesthetic Quality between Single and Septum-based Double Injection for Ultrasound-Guided Costoclavicular Block: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Hyeon Ju Shin, MD, PhD, Mi Geum Lee, MD, PhD, Jae Chul Koh, MD, PhD, Kyung Seob Yoon, MD, Wol Seon Jung, MD, PhD, Dong Chul Lee, MD, PhD, and Seung Hyun Chung, MD, PhD.

BACKGROUND: In a costoclavicular (CC) approach of an ultrasound (US)-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block (BPB), a septum between the lateral and the medial/posterior cords can result in an incomplete block. We hypothesized that double injections in each compartment between the septum would result in a higher success rate of BPB than a single injection in the center of the CC space.

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to confirm the superiority of block quality achieved by septum-based double injections (experimental group; group E) over single injection in the center of the CC space (control group; group C).

STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial

SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital.

METHODS: Sixty-eight patients who underwent upper extremity surgery randomly received a single (SI group, n = 34) or a septum-based double injection (DI group, n = 34) using the CC approach. Ten milliliters of 2% lidocaine, 10 mL of 0.75% ropivacaine, and 5 mL of normal saline were used for BPB in each group (total 25 mL). Sensory-motor blockade of the ipsilateral median, radial, ulnar, and musculocutaneous nerves was assessed by a blinded observer at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes immediately after local anesthesia administration. The assessed variables were the success rate, the rate of all 4 nerves blockade, and onset time.

RESULTS: Thirty minutes after the block, the success rate was significantly higher in the DI group than in the SI group (64.7% in the SI group vs 91.2% in the DI group, P = 0.009), and the rate of all 4 nerves blockade also significantly increased in the DI group compared to the SI group (44.1% in the SI group vs 91.2% in the DI group, P = 0). The onset time was significantly shortened in the DI group compared with the SI group (26.3 ± 5.6 min in the SI group vs 21.3 ± 6.2 min in the DI group, P = 0.010).

LIMITATIONS: We considered that the location of the septum was always between the lateral cord superficially and the medial/posterior cords below it. In some patients in whom the septum was not visible, a superficial lateral cord was injected first, and then deep medial and posterior cords were injected, assuming that the 2 compartments were divided by the septum.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the SI, the septum-based DI of CC approach increased the success rate and the rate of all 4 nerves blockade and shortened the onset time.

KEY WORDS: Brachial plexus block, costoclavicular approach, infraclavicular block, double injection, ultrasound