- 2023;26;1-11Effect of Dexmedetomidine, Dexamethasone, and Ondansetron on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Children Undergoing Dental Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Ahmed Abdelaziz A. Shama, MD, Amir Abouzkry Elsayed, MD, Abdulrahman A. Albraithen, ., and Sherif Kamal Arafa, MD.
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common unpleasant adverse effects after surgery. The incidence of PONV in pediatric patients is often twice as high as in adults.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and ondansetron for preventing PONV in children undergoing dental rehabilitation surgery.
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial.
SETTING: Sharurah Armed Forces Hospital, Ministry of Defense Medical Services, Saudi Arabia.
METHODS: One hundred patients (6-12 years old) scheduled for dental rehabilitation were included. Patients were randomly allocated into 4 groups (25 each) to receive either 0.15 mg/kg dexamethasone (DEX), 0.05 mg/kg ondansetron (OND), 0.3 microgram/kg dexmedetomidine (DEXMED), or normal saline (control[CONT]) in DEX, OND, DEXMED or CONT groups, respectively, via infusion after induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome was a PONV incident in the first 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were: granisetron doses during 24 hours postoperative, Paediatric Anaesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale, Pediatric Objective Pain Scale (POPS) for 4 hours postoperatively, and complications in the first 24 hours.
RESULTS: The reduction of PONV and the overall number of patients who developed PONV was statistically significant in the DEXMED group compared to the CONT group (P = 0.041). However, the DEXMED group was higher compared to the DEX and OND groups but not statistically significant. Granisetron requirements and doses were statistically significantly lower in the DEXMED group than in the CONT group. PAED and POPS scores were much better in the DEXMED group than in the other groups with a statistically significant difference in most of the time measurements.
LIMITATION: Optimal dexmedetomidine dose for better effect on PONV without affecting hemodynamic stability requires more studies.
CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine is effective in reducing PONV in children undergoing dental rehabilitation with better sedative and analgesic scores as compared to the control group.
KEY WORDS: Dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, dental rehabilitation, ondansetron, postoperative nausea and vomiting